Wednesday, October 31, 2007

French and Francophone literature
French literature By category French language Medieval 16th century - 17th century 18th century - 19th century 20th century - Contemporary
Francophone literature Literature of Quebec Postcolonial literature Literature of Haiti Chronological list
Writers - Novelists Playwrights - Poets Essayists Short Story Writers
Novel - Poetry - Plays Science Fiction - Comics Fantastique - Detective Fiction Naturalism - Symbolism Surrealism - Existentialism Nouveau Roman Theater of the Absurd
Literary theory - Critics Literary Prizes
Molière - Racine - Balzac Stendhal - Flaubert Emile Zola - Marcel Proust Samuel Beckett - Albert Camus This article is a general introduction to French literature. For detailed information on French literature in specific historic periods, see the separate historical articles in the template to the right.
French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. Literature written in French by citizens of other nations such as Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Senegal, Algeria, Morocco, etc. is referred to as Francophone literature.

French literature
Besides literature written in the French language, the literary culture of France may include literature written in other languages of France. In the medieval period many of the competing standard languages in various territories that later came to make up the territory of modern France each produced literary traditions, such as Anglo-Norman literature and Provençal literature.
Literature in the regional languages continued through to the 18th century, although increasing eclipsed by the rise of the French language and influenced by the prevailing French literary model. Conscious language revival movements in the 19th century, such as Félibrige in Provence, coupled with wider literacy and regional presses, enabled a new flowering of literary production in the Norman language and others.
Frédéric Mistral, a poet in Occitan (1830-1914), was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1904.
Breton literature since the 1920s has been lively, despite the falling number of speakers. In 1925, Roparz Hemon founded the periodical Gwalarn which for 19 years tried to raise the language to the level of other great "international" languages by creating original works covering all genres and by proposing Breton translations of internationally recognized foreign works. In 1946, Al Liamm took up the role of Gwalam. Other reviews came into existence and gave Breton a fairly large body of literature for a minority language. Among writers in Breton are Yann-Ber Kalloc'h, Anjela Duval and Per-Jakez Hélias.
Picard literature maintains a level of literary output, especially in theatrical writing. Walloon literature is bolstered by the more significant literary production in the language in Belgium.
Catalan literature and literature in the Basque language also benefit from the existence of a readership outside the borders of France.

Literatures of other languages of France
The following French or French language authors have won a Nobel Prize in Literature:

1901 - Sully Prudhomme (The first Nobel Prize in literature)
1904 - Frédéric Mistral (wrote in Occitan)
1911 - Maurice Maeterlinck (Belgian)
1915 - Romain Rolland
1921 - Anatole France
1927 - Henri Bergson
1937 - Roger Martin du Gard
1947 - André Gide
1952 - François Mauriac
1957 - Albert Camus
1960 - Saint-John Perse
1964 - Jean-Paul Sartre (declined the prize)
1969 - Samuel Beckett (Irish, wrote in English and French)
1985 - Claude Simon
2000 - Gao Xingjian (writes in Chinese) French Nobel Prize in Literature winners

French literature Selected list of French literary classics

Middle Ages

  • anonymous - La Chanson de Roland (The Song of Roland)
    Chrétien de Troyes - Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion (Yvain, the Knight of the Lion), Lancelot, ou le Chevalier à la charrette (Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart)
    various - Tristan et Iseult (Tristan and Iseult)
    anonymous - Lancelot-Graal (Lancelot-Grail), also known as the prose Lancelot or the Vulgate Cycle
    Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung - Roman de la Rose ("Romance of the Rose")
    16th century

    • François Rabelais - Pantagruel, Gargantua
      17th century

      • Madame de Lafayette - La Princesse de Clèves
        18th century

        • Voltaire - Candide
          Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse
          Denis Diderot - Jacques le fataliste (Jacques the Fatalist)
          19th century

          • Stendhal - Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black), La Chartreuse de Parme (The Charterhouse of Parma)
            Honoré de Balzac - La Comédie humaine ("The Human Comedy", a novel cycle which includes Père Goriot and Eugénie Grandet)
            Gustave Flaubert - Madame Bovary, Salammbô, L'Éducation sentimentale (Sentimental Education)
            Edmond and Jules de Goncourt - Germinie Lacerteux
            Guy de Maupassant - Bel Ami, La Parure (The Necklace), other short stories
            Émile Zola - Les Rougon-Macquart (a novel cycle which includes L'Assommoir, Nana and Germinal)
            20th century

            • André Gide - Les Faux-monnayeurs (The Counterfeiters), The Immoralist
              Marcel Proust - À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time)
              André Breton - Nadja
              Louis-Ferdinand Céline - Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of the Night)
              Colette - Gigi
              Jean Genet - Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs
              Albert Camus - L'Étranger (The Stranger)
              Michel Butor - La Modification
              Marguerite Yourcenar - Mémoires d'Hadrien
              Alain Robbe-Grillet - Dans le labyrinthe
              Georges Perec - La vie mode d'emploi
              Robert Pinget - Passacaille Fiction

              François Villon - Les Testaments
              Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and other poets of "La Pléiade" - poems
              La Fontaine - The Fables
              Victor Hugo - Les Contemplations
              Alphonse de Lamartine - Méditations poétiques
              Charles Baudelaire - Les Fleurs du mal
              Paul Verlaine - Jadis et naguère
              Arthur Rimbaud - Une Saison en Enfer
              Stéphane Mallarmé - Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard ("A Throw of the Dice Will Never Abolish Chance")
              Guillaume Apollinaire - Alcools
              Francis Ponge
              Raymond Queneau Poetry

              Pierre Corneille - Le Cid
              Molière - Tartuffe, The Misanthrope, Dom Juan
              Jean Racine - Phèdre, Andromaque
              Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux
              Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais
              Edmond Rostand - Cyrano de Bergerac
              Jean Giraudoux - The Trojan War Will Not Take Place
              Jean Anouilh - Becket, Antigone
              Jean-Paul Sartre - No Exit
              Samuel Beckett - Waiting for Godot, Endgame
              Eugène Ionesco - The Bald Soprano, Rhinoceros
              Jean Genet - The Maids, The Blacks Theater

              Michel de Montaigne - The Essays
              Blaise Pascal - Les Pensées
              François de La Rochefoucauld - The Maxims
              Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, The Social Contract
              François-René de Chateaubriand - Genius of Christianity
              Alexis de Tocqueville - Democracy in America
              Adolphe Thiers - History of the French Revolution, History of the Consulate and Empire
              Jules Michelet - Histoire de France, La Sorcière
              Albert Camus - The Myth of Sisyphus
              Jean-Paul Sartre - Existentialism is a Humanism, Being and Nothingness Non-fiction

              Roland Barthes
              Paul Bénichou
              Jacques Derrida
              Julia Kristeva
              Jacques Lacan
              Jean-François Lyotard

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

To circumnavigate a place, such as an island, a continent, or the Earth, is to travel all the way around it by boat or ship. More recently, the term has also been used to cover aerial round-the-world flights.

World circumnavigation
The map on the right shows, in red, a typical sailing circumnavigation of the world by the trade winds and the Suez and Panama canals; overlaid in yellow are the points antipodal to all points on the route. It can be seen that the route roughly approximates a great circle, and passes through two pairs of antipodal points. This is a route followed by many cruising sailors; the use of the trade winds makes it a relatively easy sail, although it passes through a number of zones of calms or light winds.
In yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical, particularly in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. Yacht racing therefore defines a world circumnavigation to be a passage of at least 21,600 nautical miles (40,000 km) in length which crosses the equator, crosses every meridian in the same direction and finishes in the same port as it starts. The map on the left shows the route of the Vendée Globe round-the-world race in red; overlaid in yellow are the points antipodal to all points on the route. It can be seen that the route does not pass through any pairs of antipodal points. Since the winds in the lower latitudes predominantly blow west-to-east it can be seen that there is an easier route (west-to-east) and a harder route (east-to-west) when circumnavigating by sail; this difficulty is magnified for square-rig vessels..
Since the advent of world cruises in 1922, by Cunard's Lanconia, thousands of people have completed circumnavigations of the globe at a more leisurely pace. Typically, these voyages begin in New York City or Southampton, and proceed westward. Routes vary, either travelling through the Caribbean and then into the Pacific Ocean via the Panama Canal, or around Cape Horn. From there ships usually make their way to Hawaii, the islands of the South Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, then northward to Hong Kong, South East Asia, and India. At that point, again, routes may vary: one way is through the Suez Canal and into the Mediterranean; the other is around the Cape of Good Hope and then up the west coast of Africa. These cruises end in the port where they began.

There is one successful polar circumnavigation journey; tracing a great circle around the globe 'vertically' i.e. through both poles. Sir Ranulph Fiennes, Charles Burton and their team successfully completed the Transglobe Expedition between 1979 and 1982. Transglobe was the first polar circumnavigation by surface travel, touching two true antipodes: the two poles of the Earth. They approximated the great circle passing through Greenwich, covering 52,000 miles in the process. "To the Ends of the Earth" is the classic book which describes this journey.

Surface travel
Thomas Stevens was the first person to circle the globe by bicycle. The feat was accomplished between 1884 and 1886. While impressive at the time, a good portion of the trip was by steamer due to technical and political reasons.
The December 2006 guidelines issued by Guinness state that a human powered circumnavigation must travel a minimum of 36,787.559 km (the distance of the Tropic of Cancer), cross the Equator, and each leg must commence at the exact point where the last finished off. There are no requirements to reach antipodal points. To date no one has completed a human-powered circumnavigation according to the guidelines set by Guinness World Records.

Circumnavigation Human-powered

Ferdinand Magellan, 15111521 (multiple voyages). In 1511 he visited the Moluccas (3°9′S 129°23′E). He returned to Portugal and set out in 1519 to circumnavigate the globe. He discovered and sailed through the Strait of Magellan and reached the Philippines in 1521, where he was killed on Cebu (10°5′S 123°33′E). It should be noted, however, that Magellan did not personally complete a circumnavigation of the Earth in any one single voyage.
Enrique of Malacca, ?–1521, Magellan's interpreter (multiple voyages). He was captured in Sumatra as a child and taken to the Moluccas where he was sold to Magellan in 1511; he accompanied Magellan on his circumnavigation and ended up on Cebu in the Philippines.
The 18 survivors of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition (which began with 5 ships and 200 men), 15191522, in the Victoria. After Magellan died in the Philippines in 1521, the circumnavigation was completed under the command of the Basque seafarer Juan Sebastián Elcano who returned to Seville on 8 September 1522 after a journey of 3 years and 1 month. Notable global maritime circumnavigations

Phoenician expedition sent by Pharaoh Necho II, c. 600 BC, first circumnavigation of Africa.
Roman Governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola, c. 80, first circumnavigation of Britain.
Jacques Cartier, 15341535, first circumnavigation of Newfoundland.
García de Nodal, 1619, first circumnavigation of Tierra del Fuego.
James Cook, 17691770, first circumnavigation of New Zealand.
Matthew Flinders, 18011803, first circumnavigation of Australia.
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, 18781879, first circumnavigation of Eurasia, via the Northeast Passage and the Suez Canal.
RCMP St Roch — first vessel to circumnavigate North America. 1940-1942, Vancouver to Halifax, Nova Scotia, via the Northwest Passage. 1950, Halifax to Vancouver, via the Panama Canal.
HMCS Labrador, 1954, first vessel to circumnavigate North America in a single voyage. Other notable maritime circumnavigations

Bruno Peyron (French), January–March 2005, fastest circumnavigation 50 days 16 hours 20 minutes 4 seconds.
Jean Luc van den Heede (French), 2004, fastest westward single-handed circumnavigation, 122 days 14 hours 3 minutes 49 seconds.
Adrienne Cahalan (Australian), February-March 2004, fastest woman to complete a circumnavigation (crew of "Cheyenne") 58 days 9 hours 32 minutes 45 seconds
Ellen MacArthur (English), 20042005, fastest single-handed 71 days 14 hours 18 minutes 33 seconds.
Jon Sanders holds the world record for completing a single-handed triple circumnavigation.
The RMS Queen Mary 2, at 148,528 gross tons, became the world's largest passenger ship to circumnavigate the globe during her 2007 world cruise. Notable aerial circumnavigations
The most famous circumnavigation never happened. This is the story told in Jules Verne's 1872 adventure novel, Around the World in Eighty Days. Upper class Englishman Phileas Fogg and his servant Passepartout use a variety of transportation means and ingenuity to accomplish the adventurous feat. The book was freely adapted by Mike Todd into an Academy Award winning movie of the same name in 1956, starring David Niven and Cantinflas. The book (especially) and the movie are tributes to the new transportation possibilities of the early Industrial Revolution, with the coming of steamships, railways, etc. As this circumnavigation did not cross the Equator or reach antipodal points, it would not have been recognized by Guinness Records as an official circumnavigation (if such a thing had existed at that time).

Monday, October 29, 2007

Homelessness is the condition and societal category of people who lack fixed housing, usually because they cannot afford a regular, safe, and adequate shelter. The term "homelessness" may also include people whose primary nighttime residence is in a homeless shelter, in an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or in a public or private place not designed for use as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.
1966. Cathy Come Home at the Internet Movie Database - An influential film by Ken Loach which raised the profile of homelessness in the UK and led indirectly to the formation of several charities and changes in legislation.
1986. Down and Out in Beverly Hills at the Internet Movie Database
1991. Life Stinks at the Internet Movie Database
1994. With Honors at the Internet Movie Database
1997. La Vendedora de Rosas at the Internet Movie Database
2003. Homeless to Harvard: the Liz Murray Story at the Internet Movie Database -- see Liz Murray
2006. The Pursuit of Happyness at the Internet Movie Database - the story of Chris Gardner
2005 Without a Net: Middle Class and Homeless (With Kids) in America by Michelle Kennedy
1985. Streetwise at the Internet Movie Database -- follows homeless Seattle youth.
1997. The Street: A Film with the Homeless at the Internet Movie Database -- about the Canadian homeless in Montreal. New York Times Review,
2000 Dark Days at the Internet Movie Database -- A film following the lifes of homeless adults living in the Amtrak tunnels in New York.
2001 Children Underground at the Internet Movie Database -- Following the lifes of homeless children in Bucharest, Romania.
2003. À Margem da Imagem at the Internet Movie Database -- about the homeless in São Paulo, Brazil. Its English title is "On the Fringes of São Paulo: Homeless".
2004. Homeless in America at the Internet Movie Database
2005 Children of Leningradsky at the Internet Movie Database -- About homeless children in Moscow.
2005 Reversal of Fortune at the Internet Movie Database -- Explores what a homeless who is given $100,000 and is free to do with it whatever he wishes.
2007 Easy Street -- about the homeless in Florida.
1988. Home Sweet Homeless at the Internet Movie Database
2005. Photographic expose by Michel Mersereau entitled "Between The Cracks"
Circuit rider
Freight train hoppers
Gutter punks
Gypsies (Roma people)
Perpetual travelers
Vagabond (person)
Vagrancy (people)
Rough sleepers
Street children
Economic migrants
Internally displaced persons
Substance abuse
Squatting in abandoned houses
Panhandling and begging
Homelessness in Europe
Housing authority
Homeless World Cup
Tafari, Jack
Baumohl, Jim [27], (editor), "Homelessness in America", Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1996.
BBC News, "Warning over homelessness figures: Government claims that homelessness numbers have fallen by a fifth since last year should be taken with a health warning, says housing charity Shelter", Monday, 13 June 2005.
BBC Radio 4, "No Home, a season of television and radio programmes that introduce the new homeless.", 2006.
Booth, Brenda M., Sullivan, J. Greer, Koegel, Paul, Burnam, M. Audrey, "Vulnerability Factors for Homelessness Associated with Substance Dependence in a Community Sample of Homeless Adults", RAND Research Report. Originally published in: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, v. 28, no. 3, 2002, pp. 429-452.
Charlton, Emma, "France to create 'legal right' to housing", Agence France-Presse news, January 3, 2006.
Coalition for the Homeless (New York), "A History of Modern Homelessness in New York City". [28]PDF
Cooper, Yvette, MP, "Effective Homelessness Prevention", April 12, 2006.
Crimaldi, Laura,"Homeless getting new lease on life", Boston Herald, December 11, 2006
Culhane, Dennis [29], "Responding to Homelessness: Policies and Politics", 2001. [30]
deMause, Neil, "Out of the Shelter, Into the Fire: New city program for homeless: Keep your job or keep your apartment", The Village Voice, New York, June 20, 2006. [31]
DePastino, Todd, "Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America", 2003. ISBN 0-226-14378-3
Duffy, Gary, "Brazil's homeless and landless unite", BBC News, Sao Paulo, April 17, 2007.
Institute for Governmental Studies, Berkeley, "Urban Homelessness & Public Policy Solutions: A One-Day Conference", January 22, 2001[32]
Kahn, Ric,"Buried in Obscurity", Boston Globe, December 17, 2006.
Kusmer, Kenneth L. [33], "Down and Out, On the Road: The Homeless in American History", Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-504778-8
Morton, Margaret, "The Tunnel: The Underground Homeless Of New York City", Yale University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-300-06559-0
O'Brien, Matthew (author) and Mollohan, Danny (photographer). Beneath the Neon: Life and Death in the Tunnels of Las Vegas. Huntington Press, 2007. ISBN 0-929-71239-0
Riis, Jacob, "How the Other Half Lives", 1890. [34]
Rossi, Peter H., "Down and Out in America: The Origins of Homelessness", University Of Chicago Press, 1990.
Schutt, Russell K., Ph.D., Professor, University of Massachusetts Boston.

  • Schutt, Russell K., et al., "Boston's Homeless, 1986-87: Change and Continuity", 1987.
    Schutt, Russell K., Working with the Homeless: the Backgrounds, Activities and Beliefs of Shelter Staff, 1988.
    Schutt, Russell, K., "Homeless Adults in Boston in 1990: A Two-Shelter Profile", 1990.
    Schutt, Russell K., Garrett, Gerald R., "Responding to the Homeless: Policy and Practice", Topics in Social Psychiatry, 1992. ISBN 0-306-44076-8
    Schutt, Russell K., Byrne, Francine, et al., "City of Boston Homeless Services: Employment & Training for Homeless Persons", 1995.
    Schutt, Russell K., Feldman, James, et al., "Homeless Persons' Residential Preferences and Needs: A Pilot Survey of Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Boston Mental Health and Generic Shelters", 2004.
    Sommer, Heidi, "Homelessness in Urban America: a Review of the Literature", 2001. [35]PDF (167 KiB)
    St. Mungo's organisation (UK), "A Brief History of Homelessness". [36]
    Sweeney, Richard.,"Out of Place: Homelessness in America", HarperCollins College Publishers, 1992.
    Vissing, Yvonne [37], "Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Homeless Children and Families in Small-Town America", 1996.
    Vissing, Yvonne, "The $ubtle War Against Children", Fellowship, March/April 2003. [38]
    Vladeck, Bruce, R., and the Committee on Health Care for Homeless People, Institute of Medicine, "Homelessness, Health, and Human needs", National Academies Press, 1988. [39]
    Toth, Jennifer, "The Mole People: Life in the Tunnels Beneath New York City", 1993. ISBN 1-55652-190-1
    United States Conference of Mayors, "Hunger and Homelessness Survery", December 2005. [40]PDF (1.19 MiB) [41]
    The Borgen Project
    Homeless Statistics
    Salvation Army
    Scottish Borders Council Homelessness Services
    A US perspective
    A Canadian perspective
    An on-the-street perspective
    David Shankbone's "Street Sleepers" photograph series
    Les Enfants de Don Quichotte, French NGO which organized illegal camping-sites on the Canal Saint-Martin in Paris end of December 2006-January 2007 in order to enforce the right to lodging (droit au logement).
    Toxic Playground: Growing Up In Skid Row
    Interview with a young Japanese homeless man

Sunday, October 28, 2007

José Maria Neves
José Maria Pereira Neves (born March 28, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Cape Verde. He has been Prime Minister since 1 February 2001 and is a member of the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV). Part of his superior education was in the Getúlio Vargas Foundation in Brazil. Between August 12 and 16 of 2005, he visited eight state capitals of Brazil including São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Goiânia, Recife, Maceió, João Pessoa, Natal and Fortaleza and received an audience from the Brazilian president as well on August 22.
Neves is also a supporter of EU membership for Cape Verde.
While acknowledging the harmful effects of slavery and colonialism on Africa, Neves has said that African leaders are primarily responsible for the continent's problems today, and that they "must assume their responsibility to develop a clear strategy for Africa's future that takes advantage of all of its human capabilities and natural resources."

Saturday, October 27, 2007

After the first round of the election, some people, including Mehdi Karroubi, the pragmatic reformist candidate who ranked third in the first round but was the first when partial results were first published, have alleged that a network of mosques, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps military forces, and Basij militia forces have been illegally used to generate and mobilize support for Ahmadinejad. Karroubi has explicitly alleged that Mojtaba Khamenei, a son of the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, was involved. Ayatollah Khamenei then wrote to Karroubi and mentioned that these allegations are below his dignity and will result in a crisis in Iran, which he will not allow. As a reply, Karroubi resigned from all his political posts, including an Advisor to the Supreme Leader and a member of Expediency Discernment Council, on both of which he had been installed by Khamenei. The day after, on June 20, a few reformist morning newspapers, Eghbal, Hayat-e No, Aftab-e Yazd, and Etemaad were stopped from distribution by the general prosecutor of Tehran, Saeed Mortazavi, for publishing Karroubi's letter.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the leading candidate, has also pointed to organized and unjust interventions by "guiding" the votes, and has supported Karroubi's complaint [2].
Also, some political groups, including the reformist party Islamic Iran Participation Front, have alleged that Ahmadinejad had only ranked second because of the illegal support and advertising activities for him during the voting by the supervisors selected by the Guardian Council, while the supervisors should have remained impartisan according to the election law. Also, the reformist newspaper Shargh has pointed to an announcement by Movahhedi Kermani, the official representative of the supreme leader in Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, mentioning "vote for a person who keeps to the minimum in his advertisements and doesn't lavish", which uniquely pointed to Ahmadinejad. [3]
Many of the controversies include the Guardian Council in the illegal activities, including it publishing an opinion poll before the election putting Ahmadinejad as the front-runner against all other opinion polls, and it announcing the partial results of the election on the day after the election, putting Ahmadinejad on the second rank while he was still in the third rank in the partial statistics published by the Ministry of Interior, which led to President Khatami going to the Ministry several times and explicitly asking the Council to not announce any more partial results.

Election controversies
The Islamic Republic government of Iran, especially the Supreme Leader and the higher offices, publicly considers the turnout of the voters, which was about 63% in the first round, to resemble the support of the population for the regime, while some voters consider voting for the candidates less aligned with the supreme leader as a vote against the current practices of the regime.
Also, some voters, including exiled citizens belonging to opposition political groups or monarchists (both living outside Iran), some parts of the intellectual community living in Iran, and even a few reformists, had boycotted the election as a symbol of not supporting the current regime and its practices. The boycotters' reasons included the massive rejection of registered candidates, that they believed that the role of the Iranian president is insignificant in the power structure and overshadowed by those of the supreme leader who is practically elected for life, and that they believed that all the candidates had already helped the regime in the oppression of its political opposition or would do so if elected. The most famous boycott leader was Akbar Ganji, imprisoned in Evin prison for his journalism and in a hunger strike.
While some members of the intellectual community in Iran supported the boycott, some key figures, residing inside Iran or exiled to Europe or North America, had asked their readers and the general population to vote in the election, reasoning that not voting in the election would result in the election of one of the three conservative candidates, who were all military people with a background in Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. The most famous supporters of voting in the intellectual community included Ebrahim Nabavi, Masoud Behnoud, and Khashayar Deyhimi. These people were mostly supporting Moeen as their preferred candidate who is considered to be the least aligned with Ayatollah Khamenei, but a few have also talked or written in support of Rafsanjani or Karroubi.
After the results of the first round, many of the supporters of the boycott are now supporting Hashemi Rafsanjani, and many of the supporters of the reformist candidates, including many supporters of Moeen, are doing the same. Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF) and Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO), as the two main parties who supported Moeen, are included, with IIPF asking for "uniting against the rise of religious fascism" and MIRO telling about the rival "Führer-istic mindset". Moeen himself has mentioned that he will not personally vote in the second round, but that his supporters "should take the danger of fascism seriously" and should not think about a boycott in the second round.
Also, Emadeddin Baghi, the President of the Iranian Association for Supporting Prisoners' Rights and one of the boycotters, has also spoken in support of Rafsanjani and mentioned that while he still considers Rafsanjani a conservative, he prefers his traditional conservatism to Ahmadinezhad's fundamentalism.

Turnout and boycotts
The schedule of the election had been decided between the Ministry of Interior and the Guardian Council for June 17, 2004. The election will continue as a runoff race, which will take place a week later than the first round of elections, on June 24, 2005. The registration of candidates began on May 10, 2005 and continued for five days, until May 14. If the Guardian Council had requested, it may have been extended for five more days, until May 19. The candidates were not allowed to do advertisements, until the final list of approved candidates are known. The official period for advertisement was May 27 to June 15.
In the first round, Iranian nationals born on or before June 17, 1990, residing in or outside Iran, were able to vote. The election in Iran began on 09:00 local time (04:30 UTC) and while the original deadline was ten hours later on 19:00 (14:30 UTC), the deadline was extended three times by the Ministry of Interior, finally until 23:00 (18:30 UTC). Outside Iran, different times are used as the opening and closing hours for the polling offices. On the same date, mid-term Majlis elections for Gachsaran, Garmsar, Ghazvin, Ilam, Iranshahr, Jolfa, Marand, Sarbaz, and Shiraz took place together with the runoff elections of Tehran for the Iranian Majlis election of 2004.
The first three suggestions by the Ministry, for May 13, May 20, and June 10, 2005, had been rejected by the Council. The Ministry had mentioned that it is concerned that an election later than May 20 may collide with the final exams of the elementary schools and high schools.
The second round of the election will happen on June 24, and Iranian nationals born on or before June 24, 1990 were able to vote. The election in Iran began at 09:00 local time (04:30 UTC) and the closing time of the voting polls was at 19:00 (14:30 UTC), but was subject to extension by the Ministry of Interior.

The registration of the candidates finished on May 14, 2005 and 1014 candidates had registered to run, including many people who didn't have the qualifications required in the law. More than 90% of the candidates were men, and there were about ninety female candidates. The law about the election process does not include any requirements for people who want to register to run: it only provides qualifications that are to be checked by the Guardian Council.
The candidates must have first be approved by the Guardian Council before being put to public vote and it could be predicted that some of the candidates would not win the approval, especially Ebrahim Asgharzadeh and Ebrahim Yazdi, who were rejected by the Council in the parliamentary elections of 2004 and/or the presidential elections of 2001. There were also some people who expected Mostafa Moeen, the most controversial reformist candidate, to be disqualified as well. But the most unpredictable was the disqualification of conservative Reza Zavare'i, a former member of the Guardian Council and an approved presidential candidate for two previous elections.
Also, there was a high probability of rejection of women, because of an ambiguous term ("rejāl", رجال) in the Constitution of Iran, a requirement for presidential candidates, which may be interpreted as either "men" or "nobles". The Guardian Council, who is also the official interpreter of the constitution, has mentioned on previous elections that the restriction has not been considered in depth yet, since according to the Council's opinion there were no women registered to run for presidency who fulfilled the other requirements of the constitution; but still, the Council believes that the requirement of rejaal would not match women.
There had also been discussions for a new law proposed in the Majlis, restricting the maximum age of the candidates for the presidential elections. This was widely seen as an attempt to limit the participation of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mehdi Karroubi. The attempt failed with no proposal appearing.

The list of all the people who have officially registered to run for the post is not available to the public, but the Guardian Council published a final list of six approved candidates on May 22, rejecting all independent candidates and some candidates from the both wings, specially the reformist candidates Mostafa Moeen and Mohsen Mehralizadeh. This raised many objections among the general public and the political parties, including student protests in the Tehran University, among other universities. This, and the objections of some of the approved candidates, led to a letter from Ayatollah Khamenei, the Supreme Leader, to the Guardian Council asking for the approval of Moeen and Mehralizadeh (this had apparently been because of a request by Haddad-Adel, the conservative Speaker of the Parliament) [4]. It is unknown if that letter meant that the Guardian Council must have approved these two, or it should have only reconsidered their case. The next day, on May 23, the Guardian Council announced the approval of Moeen and Mehralizadeh.
Mohsen Rezaee, one of the approved conservative candidates, who is the Secretary of Expediency Discernment Council and a previous commander of the Iran-Iraq war, withdrew in the evening of June 15.
These are the candidates approved by the Council of Guardians:

Iranian presidential election, 2005 Approved candidates

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council and a former President of Iran, who has won the support of several parties from both of the wings (and may still win more support), but is considered to be leaned towards the conservatives more than towards the reformists. Ironically, the reformist alliance considered him as a possible candidate of theirs more than the conservative alliance. He was invited to run for president by Executives of Construction Party (reformist), Combatant Clergy Association (conservative), Islamic Labour Party (conservative), and Workers' House (reformist), as well as several other parties across the whole spectrum of positions. Rafsanjani confirmed he is running for the election on May 10, after lots of speculations [5]. Trans-party

Mehdi Karroubi, former Majlis Speaker, Secretary General of Association of Combatant Clerics (MCS), supported by MCS, Islamic Association of Engineers, Majma'-e Gorooh-haa-ye Khat-te Emam, and Democracy Party of Iran.
Mohsen Mehralizadeh, Vice-President and Head of National Sports Organization, member of IIPF. Mehralizadeh has first announced that he will be running for the post on behalf of the Iranian younger generation, but not if the reformist alliance reaches consensus on another candidate, but during the registration mentioned that he will remain in the race until the end.
Mostafa Moeen, former Minister of Science, Research and Technology, supported by Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF) and Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO). Confirmed to run on December 29, 2004. IIPF, an influential reformist party in Iran, has mentioned that they won't support any presidential candidate outside the party, except Mousavi and Moeen. Since Mousavi has declined to run, they supported Moeen, whom they claimed to be the most probable candidate to win the approval of other parties in the reformist alliance. Some conservative Majlis representatives had asked for the Guardian Council's rejection of Moeen, which happened finally but was reversed after a letter by Ayatollah Khamenei. Moeen had announced that he would choose Mohammad Reza Khatami as his First Vice President if he was elected, and had already chosen Elaheh Koulaee, a female representative of the sixth Islamic Assembly, as his spokeswoman. Reformists

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mayor of Tehran, member of Islamic Society of Engineers (ISE), supported by some parts of Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (ABII). Although Ahmadinejad said he would not seek nomination on February 2, 2005, he returned to the scene later.
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, former Commander of Police (niroo-ye entezaami). Contrary to the public announcement of Ayatollah Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, that nobody knows who he will personally vote for, Ghalibaf had claimed privately that he is the person Khamenei will vote for.
Ali Larijani, Supreme Leader's representative in National Security Council and a former director of IRIB, who was supposed to be the major conservative candidate, as chosen by the "Council for Coordinating the Revolution Forces" (showrā-ye hamāhangi-e nirūhā-ye enǧelāb), a council of some older and very influential leaders of the conservative alliance. Rejected candidates
The most important withdrawal was that of Mohsen Rezaee, one of the candidates who was approved by the Guardian Council and participated in the race until the evening of June 15, 2005, two days before the election and only a few hours before the final deadline allowed for advertisements. Rezaee mentioned he is withdrawing from the race for "the integraton of the votes of the nation" and "their effectiveness". He did not endorse any candidate. [8]
Also, several people were considered possible candidates for the post, who later declined to run early in the race or at the final moments before registration. A list of the ones considered seriously in the media includes:


  • Safdar Hosseini, Minister of Economy and Finance Affair, member of IIPF
    Hadi Khamenei, member of Society of Forces Following the Line of the Imam, declined on December 6, 2004
    Mohammad Reza Khatami, former Majlis Vice Speaker, Secretary General of IIPF
    Hassan Khomeini, grandson of Ruhollah Khomeini
    Mir-Hossein Mousavi, former Prime Minister, declined on October 12, 2004
    Mohammad Mousavi-Khoiniha, member of MCS, declined on November 21, 2004
    Behzad Nabavi, former Majlis Vice Speaker, member of MIRO
    Mohammad Ali Najafi, former Minister of Education
    Abdollah Ramezanzadeh, Spokesman of Government, member of IIPF

    • Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel, Speaker of Majlis, he declined his activities for election and said that he will try to re-ally conservatives for election.
      Abdollah Jasbi, President of Islamic Azad University. Jasbi withdrew in favour of Hashemi Rafsanjani.
      Mohammad Javad Larijani, Director of IPM. He strongly endorses his brother Ali Larijani for presidency.
      Hossein Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, former speaker of Judiciary Branch
      Ahmad Tavakkoli, Majlis representative and Director of Majlis Research Center and former presidential candidate. Tavakkoli resigned from the race on May 1, 2005, telling that he is doing this to help minimize the diversity in the conservative camp. He is supporting Ghalibaf in the elections.
      Ali Akbar Velayati, an Adviser to the Supreme Leader for foreign affairs, and a former Minister of Foreign Affairs. Velayati was supported inside the conservative alliance by Islamic Coalition Party (ICP). Valayati had confirmed that he does not accept the support of the Council for Coordination and will run independently, unless Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who was the President of Iran during Velayati's ministership, runs. On May 14, Velayati did not register to run until the official deadline, and then announced that he is supporting Rafsanjani in the elections.

      • Shirin Ebadi, winner of Nobel Peace Prize in 2003, declined on January 2, 2005, despite support among some independent groups and parties, which are usually called pro-Human rights